1. Classification of traditional lead-acid batteries
After more than 150 years of development, the industry has developed a large number of lead-acid batteries of different types and types for different application needs. The classification methods of lead-acid batteries can be carried out from different perspectives. Common classification methods include classification by battery plate structure, classification by battery cover and structure, classification by battery maintenance method and classification by use.
In fact, due to changes in battery materials, structural design, and production processes, various lead-acid battery products can be combined. For example, sealed VRLA batteries: the lead-calcium alloy is used to reduce the amount of gas evolution during charging, and the AGM separator fixes the electrolyte and forms an oxygen diffusion channel for cathode recombination. According to the different plate designs, valve-regulated batteries are divided into two genres, the tall and thin type with American GNB as the technical prototype and the short and fat type with Yuasa as the technical prototype.
Gel battery: Represented by German Sunshine, the electrolyte fixing method is changed, and thixotropic silica gel is used to fix the electrolyte to make a colloidal valve-regulated lead battery. Compared with AGM batteries, it is more suitable for operation in high temperature environment, suitable for deep cycle and low current discharge mode. The advantages of tubular batteries can also be combined to develop tubular colloidal batteries.
Winding battery: The grid is made very thin by special grid manufacturing technology and matched with AGM separators with special requirements, and the pole group is coaxially wound. It can be made into a wound battery with very high power density, fast charging and suitable for high current discharge, suitable for starting and power batteries.
2. Classification of advanced lead-acid batteries
In recent years, many companies around the world have been working on the development of various advanced lead-acid batteries, hoping to take advantage of these advantages of the lead-acid battery industry to develop new lead-acid batteries with better performance that can meet various usage requirements. Mainly include the following:
(1) Lead cloth horizontal battery. The grid is made of lead cloth made of lead wire extruded and coated with Pb-Sn alloy on glass wire. The prepared electrodes are stacked horizontally.
(2) Bipolar battery. A pole plate, one side is the positive pole, the other side is the negative pole, and other pole plates are connected in series to form a battery.
(3) Winding battery. The battery cell is a cylindrical battery electrode group formed by winding the negative electrode layer, the positive electrode layer and the separator layers on both sides of the positive electrode layer together.
(4) Flat tubular battery. The grid is extruded and formed, with a thickness of 0.75mm, and the pole plate is not more than 3mm. It is used in EV, HEV and other recycling occasions.
(5) Foil roll battery. The electrode as thin as paper, the thickness is only 0.05~0.08mm.
(6) Super battery (Pb/C battery). The lead-carbon battery is a battery formed by assembling a supercapacitor represented by a carbon electrode and a lead storage battery in an internal parallel manner. The advantages of high specific power and long life of electric double layer capacitors are integrated into lead-acid batteries, which can simplify the circuit, improve the specific energy, and reduce the total cost while maintaining the advantages of “external integration” to improve power and prolong battery life.