The development trend of lead storage battery technology
After years of research, lead-acid batteries have been maturely applied in various fields, and new lead-acid battery energy storage technologies are also emerging. Horizontal lead grid lead-acid batteries and super lead-acid batteries are the main development trends of lead-acid batteries in the future.
The horizontal lead grid lead-acid battery is a new technology of lead-acid battery that uses horizontal electrodes. It uses a patented extrusion process to make a coaxial glass fiber lead-coated wire and a bipolar electrode structure. It has excellent performance, especially in terms of power performance and seismic performance. As a power battery, it can fully meet the needs. It has good application prospects in the fields of communication power supply, solar energy, wind energy storage batteries and military applications. At present, the development technology of horizontal lead grid batteries is relatively mature. The lead cloth grid manufacturing process with independent patents adopts mechanized assembly procedures, which is the first to realize the large-scale production of horizontal batteries. American Horizon Batteries, LLC, American Millennium Energy Group, American Xtreme Power, China Haode Qianwang Level Battery (Baotou) Co., Ltd., China Taiwan Defa Industrial Co., Ltd. have invested a lot of manpower, material resources and financial resources, and some products of horizontal lead grid lead-acid batteries have been commercialized. At present, the development trend is to further increase the specific energy of the battery, extend the deep cycle life of the battery, and better solve the problems of rapid charging and self-discharge.
Super lead-acid battery combines the advantages of supercapacitors and lead-acid batteries, combines the advantages of high energy density and high power density, and is a new type of energy storage device. Super lead-acid batteries use foamed carbon grids and lead-carbon electrodes. By using the high specific surface area of foamed carbon, they combine the advantages of high specific power and long life of carbon capacitors. As the power source of vehicles, it is a breakthrough in the current lead-acid battery technology. Compared with traditional lead-acid batteries, the power can be increased by 20%~50%, and the service life can be extended by at least 2~3 times, which overcomes the defects of traditional lead-acid batteries. In the future, the technical development trend of super lead-acid batteries is: research and development of carbon materials suitable for super battery negative electrodes; working voltage is the same as that of lead-acid battery negative electrodes, lower hydrogen evolution rate, high capacity, and effective current sharing in the initial stage of discharge; how to choose the current collector so that it can better utilize the high-current charging and discharging characteristics of the super battery and ensure the stability of the battery working environment.
The development trend of flow battery technology
At present, the more mature technology and more widely used flow batteries are all vanadium flow batteries and zinc bromine flow batteries. On the whole, the all-vanadium redox flow battery is still in the initial stage of industrial development, and the technology tends to be stable and mature, but some technical problems still need to be solved. In the future development, the all-vanadium flow battery needs to continuously develop new battery materials, improve the performance of battery materials, and solve the strong oxidation activity of pentavalent vanadium ions in the battery cathode; research on methods to improve the temperature adaptability of the all-vanadium redox flow battery system, and solve the technical limitation of the positive electrode electrolyte being sensitive to high temperature, while the negative electrode electrolyte is sensitive to low temperature; prevent changes in the concentration and volume of positive and negative electrolytes due to water migration during charging and discharging, and reduce the factors that cause degradation of battery performance; the most important trend of future development is to research and develop industrialized mass-manufacturing technology so that the all-vanadium redox flow battery can finally be industrialized.
For the zinc-bromine flow battery, its future development trend is also focused on solving technical problems and industrialization. From a technical point of view, when zinc forms deposits, it has a tendency to generate dendrites. Once formed, it is easy to short-circuit the single cell. In the future, it needs to be controlled in many aspects such as electrolyte composition, stack design and operation strategy; Bromine can not only form a complex with the complexing agent and be separated from the electrolyte, but at the same time it will be complexed by the inorganic bromide ions in the electrolyte, so it has a high solubility in the electrolyte, and the dissolved bromine will diffuse to the zinc side electrode, which will lead to the problem of self-discharge; in the future, new methods or technologies need to be studied to enable various components and materials of the battery to resist the strong oxidizing property of bromine and extend the battery life. Therefore, basic research on key materials is one of the development trends. From the perspective of production, the production of zinc-bromine batteries will tend to be system integrated process production in the future to ensure product consistency and reliability; not only that, production safety and prevention of liquid bromine leakage are also issues to be concerned about.
On the whole, flow batteries have gradually launched a number of grid-level application projects around the world. As auxiliary service equipment for the power market such as frequency modulation and peak shifting, it can meet the needs of temporary expansion when it is critical. The technology has already reached a certain degree of maturity, and the product needs further market approval.